Future of Space Exploration: All You Need To Know

Future of Space Exploration: All You Need To Know
Hi, in this article we have shared everything that you need to know about space exploration and the future of space exploration. In this article we will be discussing the drawbacks, upcoming save mission related to space exploration, policies related to space exploration, etc.

Space is vast and beyond our imagination to explore. Outer space is not completely empty, it is a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles, predominantly plasma of hydrogen and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust, and cosmic rays.

But nowadays, we have explored many things about Space by traveling to various Heavenly bodies known to Humans. Hence human has done a lot more progress in Space traveling and exploration.

Now let us understand what Space Exploration is. Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space.

But not all Humans can go to Space or travel in Space. For that Extra Skilled is required. An Astronaut or Cosmonauts are the People Specially trained for Space travel.

An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

Space Exploration is necessary as it helps to address fundamental questions about our place in the Universe and the history of our solar system.

We are using many modern techniques to travel in Space using different spaceships, satellites, rockets, etc. As per the NASA average speed in Space traveling is 38,000 mph (61,000 km/h).

As you might be thinking its a great adventure, but remember it’s not that easy and even leads to loss of death as well.

Challenges Of  Space Exploration

Challenges Of  Space Exploration
  1. Meteors can damage Spaceship and also the Astronauts while Spacewalking.
  2. Solar flares and radiation can also be harmful.
  3. As in space, there is no atmosphere, its problem in breathing as well.
  4. Space debris can also cause impact damage.
Now let us know what is the height is the Space shuttle. The shuttle measures 122.2 feet long, 56.67 feet high, with a wingspan of 78.06 feet. The height of the full shuttle stack, including the external fuel tank, is 184.2 feet. Gross weight is 4.5 million pounds at liftoff.

Along with the Space shuttle, astronauts are allowed to wear compulsory Space Suits as well. The suit has a mass of 47 pounds (21 kg) without a life support backpack and costs only a fraction of the standard US$12,000,000 cost for a flight-rated NASA spacesuit. 

Spacesuits are often worn inside spacecraft as a safety precaution in case of loss of cabin pressure and are necessary for extravehicular activity (EVA), work is done outside spacecraft.

Now let us see some History of Space travel. In 1949, the Bumper-WAC was the first Space satellite which reached an altitude of 393 kilometers, becoming the first human-made object to enter space.

And for Humans, the first successful human spaceflight was Vostok 1, carrying 27-year-old Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin on 12 April 1961. The first artificial object to reach another celestial body was Luna 2 reaching the Moon in 1959.

The first soft landing on another celestial body was performed by Luna 9 landing on the Moon on February 3, 1966. Luna 10 became the first artificial satellite of the Moon, entering Moon Orbit on April 3, 1966.

The first crewed landing on another celestial body was performed by Apollo 11 on July 20, 1969, landing on the Moon

Also, Humans have created a Space Station in Outer Space. Salyut 1 was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971. The International Space Station is currently the only fully functional space station, with continuous inhabitance since the year 2000.

After successful exploring the Moons and other Planets and Heavenly body, we are still trying to explore Deep in Space, as already mentioned earlier that Space is vast and never-ending and it is beyond our imagination. Deep space exploration is the branch of astronomy, astronautics, and space technology that is involved with the exploration of distant regions of outer space.

Physical exploration of space is conducted both by human spaceflights (deep-space astronautics) and by robotic spacecraft.

Some of the best candidates for future deep space engine technologies include anti-matter, nuclear power, and beamed propulsion.

The latter, beamed propulsion appears to be the best candidate for deep space exploration presently available, since it uses known physics and known technology that is being developed for other purposes.

Now let us see some Future Space Travelling Programs which we are in progress and will soon be successful to complete. It will help in the vast research area and provide more knowledge about farther vast Space.

NASA is currently building the vehicle in its Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The Mars 2020 rover will search for signs of ancient microbial alien life on the red planet, collect and stash rock samples, and test out technology that could pave the way for humans to walk the Martian surface one day.

Upcoming Biggest Space Missions 

Upcoming Biggest Space Missions
  1. SpaceX plans to launch 12,000 communication satellites into Earth's orbit in the next year.
  2. SpaceX to Launch Crewed Starship Flight in 2020.
  3. NASA wants to send a rover to Mars' Jezero Crater with a launch window of 2020. The launch is set to take place in Florida at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and the rover is expected to land in 2021.
  4. Russian agency Roscosmos has partnered with Space Adventures to create a new tourist destination...in space, and the Russian space agency also has plans to turn a decommissioned International Space Station into a luxury hotel by 2021.
  5. The James Webb Space Telescope is set to be the successor to the Hubble Telescope and has a planned launch date of 2021, but that's after a long line of delays and setbacks. Webb will be launched with the assistance of the European Space Agency (ESA) who will provide an Ariane 5 rocket to set the Webb into orbit.
  6. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is planning to send the first group of Indian astronauts into space between 2021 and 2022 for approximately a week.
  7. SpaceX plans to launch an unpiloted mission in 2022 to "confirm water sources, identify hazards, and put in place initial power, mining, and life support infrastructure."
  8. China to Launch a Third Space Station by 2022.
  9. The European Space Agency (ESA) would like to have a method that detects "risky" asteroids weeks before they get near Earth. Hence they will create an Asteroid Insurance Policy by 2023.
  10. Japanese entrepreneur, designer, and art curator Yusaku Maezawa will be "the company’s first private passenger to fly around the Moon in 2023."
  11. The OSIRIS-REx mission, which launched in 2016 to visit the asteroid Bennu, is expected to return a 2.1-ounce sample of the rocky body back to Earth by 2023.
  12. NASA announced that they plan to send the first woman and the next man back to the Moon by 2024.
  13. In March 2025, JAXA's Martian Moons Exploration probe will enter Mars orbit before moving on the Phobos to collect particles with a simple pneumatic system. The last attempt to nab a sample of Phobos was Russia's Fobos-Grunt mission in 2011 which failed in low-Earth orbit.
  14. The Extremely Large Telescope will be Fires Up till 2025.
  15. NASA's Gateway, a cis-lunar orbital space station in conjunction with other international partners, will be an ongoing project throughout the 202os. But once the U.S. habitat is delivered to the space station in 2025, the real science begins.
  16. The world will get its first close-up of Psyche, one of the 10 major asteroids in the asteroid belt which scientists theorize is the exposed nickel-iron core of a protoplanet.
  17. The rotorcraft is scheduled to launch in 2026 and is expected to arrive at Titan in 2034 when it will begin to study the moon's wide variety of environments.
  18. This probe from the European space agency will not explore one but three moons of Jupiter Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa as well as the Gas Giant itself. Once it makes its seven-year journey after launch in 2022, the probe will enter the Jupiter system, but it will take another four years before it reaches orbit around Ganymede in 2033.
  19. NASA is aiming to send people to Mars by 2030 (at the earliest).
NASA is investing in promising new technologies that could help shape the future of space travel.
As part of the 2018 NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) initiative, Phase I and Phase II innovations receive financial support from the Agency that is used to test their potential.

Space exploration is in the midst of a major transformation. Private companies are taking more substantial responsibilities in terms of launches, International Space Station supply missions, and discovery. The future of space exploration will be very different than anything we have seen before.

On May 14, the Governance Studies program at Brookings hosted an event to discuss the future of the U.S. space program.

Impacts Of Space Exploration

Impacts Of Space Exploration
The panelists discussed the impact of private investment into space exploration and the future of space exploration. Industry leaders and academic experts considered number policy proposals that could strengthen the American space program.

1. Moonshot

Medicine from Moon Rocks, there is enormous potential for pharmaceutical companies in space. Scientists are exploring extraterrestrial minerals as possible cures for modern diseases. Currently, scientists on the International Space Station are conducting drug trials to treat Alzheimer’s.

The microgravity expedites the time of the trials because it provides a beneficial environment for macromolecular crystal growth, which could speed up the discovery of a cure.

2. Mars Colonization

In 2020 NASA is sending a mission to explore possible habitable regions on Mars. Satellites and robots sent to Mars have found evidence of water. A manned mission could provide insight into whether life exists outside of the solar system.

3. Existence of Life

Water is abundant in our solar system and other solar systems in different forms. There is evidence that Europa, Titan, and Enceladus all have water. But there is scant evidence of life on these planets. Scientists want to better understand why life developed on Earth but not Mars.

Policies Related To Space Exploration

Policies Related To Space Exploration

1. STEM

The aeronautics industry must compete with other high tech firms to hire the best and brightest minds. Many STEM majors are eschewing Cape Canaveral for Silicon Valley.

 Private firms are forming partnerships with universities to attract the nation’s top students. Government support of such programs could help achieve America’s space objectives.

2. Overregulation

The aeronautics industry has too many regulations. Both the Commerce and State Departments regulate space travel which slows regulatory processes.

The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) declares that the Department of State is responsible for the export and temporary import of defense articles and services. The innovators in the aeronautics field consider this a barrier to innovation.

3. Ties between Science and Defense

Improved communication between NASA and DoD could have big benefits for research. For example, the Clementine Mission to the moon was a DoD mission, but NASA was also able to access their data.

4. Earth Observation

With more sophisticated Earth Observation from space, weather forecasting will become more exact and scientists will be able to better monitor pollution.

If we had the technology to monitor the earth in detail, we might have known what happened to Malaysian Flight 370. Investment in the next generation of satellites could help several domestic agencies.

5. Legal Environment in Space

The US Government generally is responsible for its own spacecraft. But now that private companies are becoming more involved, who is liable if a ship crashes into a house in a foreign country? Regulators must address these issues to allow businesses to flourish.

Now let us know something about Space Adventures.

Space Adventures, Inc. is an American space tourism company founded in 1998 by Eric C. Anderson. Its offerings include zero-gravity atmosphere flights, orbital spaceflights (with the option to participate in a spacewalk), and other spaceflight-related experiences including cosmonaut training, spacewalk training, and launch tours.

Plans announced thus far include sub-orbital and lunar spaceflights. Seven of its clients have participated in the orbital spaceflight program with Space Adventures, including one who took two separate trips to space.

Client Who Flown In The Space

Client Who Flown In The Space

1. Dennis Tito

Space Adventures’ first orbital spaceflight client and the world's first private space explorer launched to the ISS in April 2001 on Soyuz TM-32. American businessman Dennis Tito received training at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City in Russia.

Tito participated in Space Adventures’ other programs, including a zero-gravity flight, centrifuge training, and a supersonic jet flight before his orbital flight.

2. Mark Shuttleworth

Mark Shuttleworth spent 10 days in space. He launched with two crewmates, Russian commander Yuri Gidzenko and Italian astronaut Roberto Vittori.

They launched on Soyuz rocket TM-34 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on April 25, 2002.

Before his flight, Shuttleworth completed Space Adventures’ Orbital Pre-Qualification Program and underwent almost eight months of training and medical exams, including a one-week orientation program at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston.

A zero-gravity flight, centrifuge training, and spacecraft communication, guidance, and control system lessons of the Russian Soyuz spacecraft and ISS were also part of his training. Shuttleworth dedicated his flight to educating South African youth and conducting scientific research.

3. Gregory Olsen

Dr. Gregory Olsen completed over 900 hours of training in Star City, Russia in preparation for his mission. He and his crewmates launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on October 1, 2005, aboard Soyuz TMA-7.

While aboard the ISS, he participated in a research program prepared by the European Space Agency that studied the human body's response to the microgravity environment. Through Amateur Radio on the ISS, Dr. Olsen contacted high school students in New Jersey and New York.

4. Anousheh Ansari

Anousheh Ansari lifted off on Soyuz TMA-9 on September 18, 2006, from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Ansari became the fourth (and first female) space, tourists.

During her eight-day stay onboard the International Space Station, Ansari conducted four experiments for the European Space Agency, including researching the mechanisms behind anemia, how changes in muscles influence lower back pain, consequences of space radiation on ISS crew members and different species of microbes that have made a home for themselves on the space station.

5. Charles Simonyi

Dr. Charles Simonyi is the first repeat orbital spaceflight client of Space Adventures'. His first spaceflight mission was in 2007 aboard Soyuz TMA-10 and his second was in 2009 aboard Soyuz TMA-14.

Simonyi's goals for both of his missions were to advance civilian spaceflight, assist space station research, and involve the world's youth in the science of space travel. His website, www.charlesinspace.com, had 33 million viewers.

6. Richard Garriott

Richard Garriott became the first American and second overall second-generation space traveler on following his astronaut father Owen Garriott into space in 2008. He is also the second person to wear the British flag in space. He launched for the International Space Station on October 12, 2008, aboard Soyuz TMA-13.

Richard's main objective for his mission was to encourage commercial participation. By fostering the involvement of individuals, companies, and organizations in his spaceflight, Richard hoped to demonstrate that there is commercial potential in private space exploration while furthering the understanding of space.

One of his crewmates on his return journey to Earth aboard Soyuz TMA-12 was Sergey Volkov, the first second-generation space traveler, who followed his father, cosmonaut Aleksandr Volkov into space.

7. Guy Laliberté

Guy Laliberté is the first Canadian space tourist who reached orbit on September 30, 2009, aboard Soyuz TMA-16. While in orbit, Laliberté promoted the One Drop Foundation and proclaimed his mission as a “Poetic Social Mission”.

He also conducted the first-ever artistic and social event, “Moving Stars and Earth for Water,” to originate from space that took place on October 9, 2009. It was a two-hour event that was hosted by Laliberté and many celebrities such as Salma Hayek, Shakira, and Bono, who participated from Earth. He returned to Earth on board Soyuz TMA-14.

Hence we conclude Future Space Travelling as,

Humanity requires more efficient, more sustainable, and much less costly access to space if it wants to dramatically expand its use of Earth orbit and make interplanetary space part of its economical sphere. We need ways to get into orbit and to reach other planets that do not leave large amounts of debris, require enormous amounts of propellant, or take incredibly long periods.

Artificial gravity, provided by long spinning tethers, can ease the life of astronauts during their interplanetary travels and counter unwanted physiological changes.

Tethers may one day become as invaluable to space travel as chemical rockets today. The 22nd century may see a fleet of spinning tethers strategically placed around Earth, the Moon, and Mars, creating efficient interplanetary highways for spacecraft that require almost no propellant.

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